There are several systems of classification of congenital malformations, based on different criteria of division.
1. Pathogenetic division:
Malformations-result from the action of internal factors on the development process, e.g. cleft palate;
Dysruptions-result from the action of external factors on the initially normal development process, e.g. amniotic band syndrome;
Deformities-result from the action of mechanical factors on the developmental process, e.g., horse-toe;
Dysplasia-results from abnormal differentiation of cells into tissues, e.g. bone dysplasia, ectodermal dysplasia.
2. Division of multiple malformations:
Sequences-are a cascade of abnormalities resulting from a single developmental defect or mechanical factor, e.g. The Potter sequence (the primary defect is renal agenesis), the Pierre-Robin Sequence (the primary defect is micrognathia);
Complexes-are the effect of impaired development of the development area or part of it, for example, an abnormal course of the artery in the embryo can cause hypoplasia of the bones and muscles supplied by this artery; holoprosencephaly;
Syndromes-are numerous congenital malformations showing pathogenetic connectivity, e.g. Edwards syndrome, Marfan syndrome;
Associations-are non-random combinations of defects, the components of which occur more often together than could occur accidentally, e.g. VACTERL association.
3. Epidemiological breakdown:
Multiple and isolated defects; Defect large (impairing the functioning of the body) and minor (without serious consequences); Fatal and non-survivable defects; Defects occurring familial and appearing sporadically.
Congenital neural tube defects
Folic acid plays an important role in the prevention of birth defects of the nervous system. A woman should start taking it before she becomes pregnant.
The defects of the cerebral vessels are: brainless-the child has no brain or skull bones. Eyes and face are developed. A child is often born alive, but dies in a short time
a cerebral hernia is the displacement of a fragment of the contents of the skull through a cavity in the bones of its cover hydrocephalus-means excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system of the brain.
The causes of hydrocephalus are many, including the recently discovered Zika virus cleft lip and palate-this defect is caused by an incorrect Fusion or lack of connection between the parts that make up the lip (cleft lip-the so-called hare lip) or the palate (cleft palate-the so-called Wolf’s mouth) spina bifida-occurs due to non-closure of the spinal canal (otherwise: caused by the absence of the posterior part of the vertebral arches). The vertebrae, which make up the spine that is forming at this time, do not reach the rear, located from the back, and therefore do not fully protect the delicate spinal cord.
Congenital malformations of the organ of vision: eyeless (no eyeball) – the eyeball did not develop in fetal life, small eyes-the eyeball does not reach the correct size, it is smaller than it should be, congenital ileus-in fetal life, the iris did not develop properly. The child is almost completely devoid of colored part of the eyeball,
Congenital malformations of the bone system, horse-pointed feet-is a defect consisting in deformation of one or both feet of the child. The feet at birth are unusually inward-facing and have a “sickle” shape. They have an inner edge shortened and raised, while the outer edge is more accentuated.
pointed knees-the axis of the underbody deflects inward and they are set at an open angle to the center (in the letter o). Correctly, the underarm axis deviates to the outside of the thigh axis (knees align to the letter X) hemimelia is a birth defect characterized by the absence of all or part of the distal (from the elbow down and from the knees down) part of the lower or upper limb hip dysplasia means not fully developed hip joint.