Heavy drinking during pregnancy has been associated with fetal alcohol syndrome—a pattern of characteristic physical features, birth defects, poor growth and developmental delay.
However, the effects of alcohol during pregnancy are not yet well understood. Does an occasional drink raise risk? Does alcohol contribute to birth defects in babies who do not have the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome? What is the effect of binge drinking?
To answer these questions, the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program routinely asks about alcohol consumption in interview studies with mothers of babies with a variety of birth defects. Here are some findings.
CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE
|Women who drink alcohol regularly do not have a higher risk of having babies with oral clefts compared to non-drinkers.|
|However, “binge” drinking—5 or more drinks per occasion—on a weekly or more frequent basis increases cleft lip and palate risk 3 to 7 times.|
|Other factors known to affect cleft risk—such as smoking and vitamin use—did not account for these findings.|
|None of the studied babies born to heavy drinkers had features of fetal alcohol syndrome such as low birth weight or small heads.|
OTHER BIRTH DEFECTS
|Neural tube defects. Alcohol use did not alter risk.|
|Down syndrome. Women with high alcohol consumption (more than 4 drinks/week) were less likely to have recognized Down syndrome pregnancies. Pregnancies with Down syndrome are known to be prone to miscarriage; alcohol may increase this susceptibility, thereby reducing the chance of having a recognized Down syndrome pregnancy.|
|Gastroschisis. Using alcohol (either daily or binge drinking) increases risk by 2 to 4 times for this life-threatening birth defect where the intestines protrude through a hole in the abdominal wall.|
|Study findings on drugs|