The most common birth defects in children:
Many newborns are diagnosed with abnormalities in the structure of the heart. According to research, up to eight in a thousand children have a congenital defect of this organ. Symptoms of this type of defect include bruising of the skin, shortness of breath, palpitations and a faster heartbeat.
The most common birth defects located in the heart are:
- atrial septal defect,
- surviving Botall’s ductus arteriosus,
- aortic stenosis.
Defects of the respiratory system
Birth defects located within the respiratory system are the second cause of death of newborns after heart defects. Most often they arise from abnormalities in the structure and the presence of cystic lesions.
The most common defect is laryngomalacia, which is manifested by loud breathing, but most often it resolves spontaneously with age. Adenomatosis and cystic fibrosis are also very common. A rare birth defect is emphysema, manifested by shortness of breath and wheezing.
Neural tube defects
- cleft lip and palate – an incorrect connection or lack thereof between the parts that make up the lip or palate,
- spina bifida-no closure of the spinal canal,
- hydrocephalus – excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid,
- brainless-no brain and skull bones, baby dies soon after birth,
- cerebral hernia-displacement of the structures of the cerebellum through a defect in the skull cover.
Defects of the urinary system
- renal agenesis-lack of kidney on one or both sides,
- double kidney-one of the kidneys has a double Calyx-pelvis system,
- Horseshoe kidney-kidney grown from the bottom,
- dysplasia of the kidney – abnormalities in the structure of the kidney,
- ectopic kidney-the kidney is in the wrong place,
- bladder malformation-absence of bladder,
- bladder-ureter reflux – urine partially recedes into the ureters,
- anticipation-the mouth of the urethra is located on the back of the penis,
- vertigo-incomplete closure of the anterior wall of the urethra.
Defects of the organ of vision – eyeless – lack of eyeball, small – eyed-smaller size of eyeball, congenital myopia-lack of colored part of eyeball.
Defects of the bone system
Rickets-in Poland, in recent years there has been a decrease in the amount of rickets in children. The reason for this is the use of vitamin D3 supplementation, which prevents bones from bending under the influence of body weight, as well as flattening of the skull bones. Children with vitamin D3 deficiency tend to be sleepy and much weaker. Therefore, by administering vitamin D3 to infants, rickets are prevented, but also treated.
Horse-claw foot-another birth defect in infants associated with the bone system is the deformation of one or both feet. The foot is equine, bent at the sole (as if the child wants to walk on his toes) and is pointed inward.
The methods of treatment used when diagnosed with congenital clubfoot begin with rehabilitation exercises, then, if necessary, by putting on a plaster cast or orthopedic devices. If the above methods do not improve the foot, so that the child can move properly, it will be necessary to perform surgery.
Flat feet-another disadvantage associated with the feet is flat feet. It should be remembered that this condition is of concern when it persists above 6. one year old.
Syndactyly-congenital malformation of the bone system in infants is also referred to when there is fusion of the toes (both feet and hands). This condition can include an adhesion of the muscles, bones or skin of the fingers, which is treated by surgery.
Polydactyly is an increased number of fingers, it can occur on the hands or feet, as well as within the thumb itself. This defect is treated surgically.
Equally often observed defects such as:
- pointed knees – the position of the lower limbs resembles The Shape Of The Letter O,
- hemimelia-absence of parts from the elbow down and from the knees down,
- hip dysplasia not fully developed hip joint.